Levels of a mature forest

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Spatial patterns of trees are important structural characteristics that can provide insights into forest dynamics and may be related to the development stages of forests. The spatial patterns of three development stages i. All trees with a diameter at breast height of more than 7. Results showed that trees in the small size class exhibited an aggregated distribution in every development stage, which matched the overall spatial pattern of all trees in each stage.
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Stages of Forest Succession

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Forest Succession – Duke Forest

Steve Nix is a member of the Society of American Foresters and a former forest resources analyst for the state of Alabama. Successional changes in plant communities were recognized and described well before the 20th century. Frederick E. Clements' observations were developed into theory while he created the original vocabulary and published the first scientific explanation for the process of succession in his book, Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation. It is very interesting to note that sixty years earlier, Henry David Thoreau described forest succession for the first time in his book, The Succession of Forest Trees. Trees play a major role in creating terrestrial plant cover when conditions develop to the point where some bare-ground and soil is present.
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Old-growth forest

The circumboreal forest encompasses diverse landscape structures, dynamics and forest age distributions determined by their physical setting, and historical and current disturbance regimes. However, due to intensifying forest utilisation, and in certain areas due to increasing natural disturbances, boreal forest age-class structures have changed rapidly, so that the proportion of old forest has substantially declined, while that of young post-harvest and post-natural-disturbance forest proportions have increased. In the future, with a warming climate in certain boreal regions, this trend may further be enhanced due to an increase in natural disturbances and large-scale use of forest biomass to replace fossil-based fuels and products.
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An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest , virgin forest , late seral forest or primeval forest — is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community. Virgin forests are old-growth forests that have never been logged. The concept of diverse tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps, greatly varying tree heights and diameters, and diverse tree species and classes and sizes of woody debris. The world has 1.
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